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Kemal Atatürk [1] (or additionally written as Kamâl Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal Pasha [a] till 1934, frequently referred to as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; [b] 1881 [c]-- 10 November 1938), was a Turkish field marshal, advanced statesman, author, and the creator of the Republic of Turkey, acting as its first President from 1923 till his death in 1938. His good-hearted dictatorship carried out sweeping progressive reforms, which modernized Turkey into a secular, industrial nation.Ideologically a secularist and nationalist, his policies and theories ended up being called Kemalism. Due to his military and political accomplishments, Atatürk is regarded according to research studies as one of the biggest leaders of the 20th century.

Atatürk pertained to prominence for his function in protecting the Ottoman Turkish victory at the Fight of Gallipoli (1915) throughout World War I. Following the defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, he led the Turkish National Motion, which withstood mainland Turkey's partition amongst the victorious Allied powers. Establishing a provisional government in the present-day Turkish capital Ankara, he beat the forces sent out by the Allies, thus emerging victorious from what was later on described as the Turkish War of Independence. He consequently proceeded to abolish the run-down Ottoman Empire and announced the structure of the Turkish Republic in its location.

As the president of the newly formed Turkish Republic, Atatürk started a strenuous program of political, economic, and cultural reforms with the ultimate aim of building a modern, progressive and secular nation-state. He made primary education free and mandatory, opening thousands of brand-new schools all over the country. He also presented the Latin-based Turkish alphabet, changing the old Ottoman Turkish alphabet. Turkish females got equal civil and political rights during Atatürk's presidency ahead of numerous Western countries. [8] In specific, ladies were provided ballot rights in local elections by Act no. 1580 on 3 April 1930 and a couple of years later, in 1934, complete universal suffrage, earlier than a lot of other democracies on the planet.

His government performed a policy of Turkicisation, trying to develop a homogeneous and unified country. Under Atatürk, non-Turkish minorities were pressured to speak Turkish in public, Click for more info non-Turkish toponyms and surnames of minorities had to be altered to Turkish performances. The Turkish Parliament approved him the surname Atatürk in 1934, which implies "Daddy of the Turks", in recognition of the function he played in developing the modern-day Turkish Republic. [16] He died on 10 November 1938 at Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul, at the age of 57 he was been successful as President by his veteran Prime Minister İsmet İnönü [18] and was honored with a state funeral. His iconic mausoleum in Ankara, developed and opened in 1953, is surrounded by a park called the Peace Park in honor of his famous expression "Peace in your home, Peace in the World".

In 1981, the centennial of Atatürk's birth, his memory was honoured by the United Nations and UNESCO, which stated it The Atatürk Year on the planet and adopted the Resolution on the Atatürk Centennial, describing him as "the leader of the first struggle offered against colonialism and imperialism" and a "remarkable promoter of the sense of understanding in between peoples and long lasting peace between the countries of the world and that he worked all his life for the advancement of harmony and cooperation in between peoples without difference". [19] [20] Atatürk is commemorated by lots of memorials and places named in his honor throughout Turkey and the world. Eleftherios Venizelos, previous Prime Minister of Greece, forwarded Atatürk's name for the 1934 Nobel Peace Prize.

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